To truly understand champagne yeast and it’s ability to aid in the production of tasty beverages, we must also understand fermentation of Champagne.
Yeast (or Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is a single-celled fungus, and there are two main forms of yeast: baker’s yeast and brewer’s yeast. Baker’s yeast is the type found at the grocery store, while brewer’s yeast is either dry or liquid and should not be ingested raw. Brewing yeast is responsible for turning wort into the desired alcoholic beverage. Wort is the liquid left over after the mashing process during brewing. The liquid, or wort, contains the sugars that the yeast reacts to.
There are many varieties of brewing yeast to complement the beverage of choice. Each variety of yeast has advantages, such as champagne yeast, a variety of wine yeast, which will yield more bubbles than other types of wine yeast. Wine yeast is used in a variety of wines and ciders because it converts the fruit juices into carbon dioxide and alcohol. Champagne yeast is best suited for champagne, dry wines, cider and fruit juices and is a clean, neutral yeast.
Method to the magic
Champagne is brewed by using the traditional method of Méthode Champenoise. The champagne is bottled after the first fermentation. Then, a second fermentation is forced by adding Champagne yeast and rock sugar. Aging and the amount of sugar added after the second fermentation decides how sweet the Champagne will become.
There are several types of champagne yeasts. The most common are:
- Pasteur Champagne: The second-most common yeast strain used, Pasteur Champagne is common in sparkling wines because it ferments quickly and effectively in colder temperatures. It is also tolerant of medium-to-high alcohol conditions, which are common in wine production. Temperature tolerance ranges from 59 degrees to 86 degrees Fahrenheit (15 degrees-30 degrees Celsius). Alcohol content yields 13 percent to 17 percent.
- Epernay: A champagne yeast isolated in Champagne, France, is preferred in bottle fermenting because of its tolerance to colder temperatures due to its slow fermentation.
- Premier Curvee: This Champagne yeast, also known as Prise de Mousse, is ideal for barrel fermentation because it is low foaming and strong acting. The yeasty aroma is better suited for secondary fermentation in sparkling wine and still production. The flocculation is low, the temperature ranges 45-95 degrees Fahrenheit (7 degrees-35 degrees Celsius), and the alcohol sits at 18 percent.
Fun with flocculation with champagne yeast
In brewing with Champagne yeast, there are many variables to take into consideration. One of these variables is flocculation, which is used to see how quickly the yeast clumps together and settles to the bottom of the fermentation container. Strains of yeast with higher flocculation will settle out of the beverage more quickly upon completion of fermentation. Champagne yeast has a medium to low flocculation, meaning it takes longer to settle out of the liquid.
Fermentation temperatures vary for each beverage that is brewed. Champagne yeast finds it’s optimum temperature at 60 degrees – 75 degrees Fahrenheit or 15 degrees – 24 degrees Celsius, with some exceptions.
Attention to attenuation
Attenuation refers to the percentage of malt sugar the yeast converts to carbon dioxide and ethanol. Yeast strains, on average, attenuate 65-80 percent. To find the attenuation, compare the original gravity and final gravity of the beverage. Champagne yeasts typically attenuate around 75 percent.
76%-80% = High Attenuation
71%-75% = Medium Attenuation
65%-70% = Low Attenuation